3D printing is the opposite of subtractive manufacturing which is cutting out / hollowing out a piece of metal or plastic with for instance a milling machine. 3D printable models may be created with a computer-aided design (CAD) package, via a 3D scanner, or by a plain digital camera and photogrammetry software. To be allowed to do these things, where an active intellectual property was involved, a person would have to contact the owner and ask for a licence, which may come with conditions and a price. It has since evolved from being a rapid prototyping tool to full-fledged manufacturing technology.  Workers may also inadvertently transport materials outside the workplace on their shoes, garments, and body, which may pose hazards for other members of the public. The versatility of this technology and materials can lead to advances in multiple fields of industry, including space, commercial and the medical field. Finally, however, 3D printing technology has advanced enough to provide high-quality, custom ophthalmic lenses, doing away with the waste and inventory costs of the past. It is still the case that casting, fabrication, stamping, and machining are more prevalent than additive manufacturing in metalworking, but AM is now beginning to make significant inroads, and with the advantages of design for additive manufacturing, it is clear to engineers that much more is to come. , Vanessa Friedman, fashion director and chief fashion critic at The New York Times, says 3D printing will have a significant value for fashion companies down the road, especially if it transforms into a print-it-yourself tool for shoppers. After the print is finished, the remaining powder is cleaned off which often can be re-used printing the next object.  In the 2010s, additive manufacturing entered production to a much greater extent. The preferred ink is of a Hot melt" type. Powder Bed Fusion processes can be used with an array of materials and their flexibility allows for geometrically complex structures, making it a go to choice for many 3D printing projects. The Delta-TT Cup designed by Dr. Guido Grappiolo and LimaCorporate is made of Trabecular Titanium, which is characterized by a regular, three-dimensional, hexagonal cell structure that imitates trabecular bone morphology. However, many patent, design and copyright laws contain a standard limitation or exception for 'private', 'non-commercial' use of inventions, designs or works of art protected under intellectual property (IP). , Although no occupational exposure limits specific to 3D printer emissions exist, certain source materials used in 3D printing, such as carbon nanofiber and carbon nanotubes, have established occupational exposure limits at the nanoparticle size. ", In 1974, David E. H. Jones laid out the concept of 3D printing in his regular column Ariadne in the journal New Scientist. The patent states " As used herein the term printing" is not intended in a limited sense but includes writing or other symbols, character or pattern formation with an ink. These techniques are able to print in multiple colors and color combinations simultaneously, and would not necessarily require painting. He filed a patent for this XYZ plotter, which was published on 10 November 1981. Some of the first Delta-TT implants are still running strong over a decade later. To many, 3D printing is the singular production of often-ornate objects on a desktop printer. Photopolymerization is primarily used in stereolithography to produce a solid part from a liquid. Most of the current demand for 3D printing is industrial in nature. , Internationally, where gun controls are generally stricter than in the United States, some commentators have said the impact may be more strongly felt since alternative firearms are not as easily obtainable. The idea of investment casting with Solid-Ink jetted images or patterns in 1984 led to the first patent to form articles from particle deposition in 1989, issued in 1992.  Any technique that removes material from the printed part has the potential to generate particles that can be inhaled or cause eye injury if proper personal protective equipment is not used, such as respirators or safety glasses.  One example of this is the bioresorbable trachial splint to treat newborns with tracheobronchomalacia developed at the University of Michigan. 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, is a manufacturing process where a 3D printer creates three-dimensional objects by depositing materials layer by layer in accordance to the … – yes it is. This technology was first developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1993. , 3D printing has entered the world of clothing, with fashion designers experimenting with 3D-printed bikinis, shoes, and dresses.  In other countries the law and the courts may apply a different approach allowing, for example, the design of a useful device to be registered (as a whole) as an industrial design on the understanding that, in case of unauthorized copying, only the non-functional features may be claimed under design law whereas any technical features could only be claimed if covered by a valid patent. 3D printing is an exceptional tool for manufacturing custom parts and prototyping. FDM works using a plastic filament which is unwound from a spool and is supplied to an extrusion nozzle which can turn the flow on and off. 3D printing is a process of building an object one thin layer at a time. The focal areas can also be completely customized so that a certain area of the lens can provide better clarity at a distance while a different area of the lens provides better vision up close. Liquid Silicone Rubber) onto a build surface to create an object which then is vulcanised using heat to harden the object.  This includes websites that allow users to access information such as how to build a 3D printer, as well as social forums that discuss how to improve 3D print quality and discuss 3D printing news, as well as social media websites that are dedicated to share 3D models. This allows for customized printing of shape changing and shape-memory materials.. Using this process, hundreds of thousands of hearing aids are 3D printed each year. 3D printing, or additive manufacturing, is the construction of a three-dimensional object from a CAD model or a digital 3D model. A prototype of the VIC 3D printer for this company is available with a video presentation showing a 3D model printed with a single nozzle inkjet. Components printed with Carbon’s technology are on par with injection molded parts. Some practical examples include a working clock and gears printed for home woodworking machines among other purposes. They also enable incorporation of all actuator components into a single structure eliminating the need to use external joints, adhesives, and fasteners.  At least one case of severe injury was noted from an explosion involved in metal powders used for fused filament printing. The nozzle is heated to melt the material and can be moved in both horizontal and vertical directions by a numerically controlled mechanism. It is therefore difficult to derive tailored measures for these processes. On this new liquid surface, the subsequent layer pattern is traced, joining the previous layer. , The year 1993 also saw the start of an inkjet 3D printer company initially named Sanders Prototype,Inc and later named Solidscape, introducing a high-precision polymer jet fabrication system with soluble support structures, (categorized as a "dot-on-dot" technique)..  More recently, 3D printing has also been used in the humanitarian and development sector to produce a range of medical items, prosthetics, spares and repairs. It is particularly useful for prototyping and for the manufacture of geometrically complex components. However, the method has rapidly evolved to not only print various polymers but also metals and ceramics, making 3D printing a versatile option for manufacturing.  RepRap is a wiki based website that was created to hold all information on 3d printing, and has developed into a community that aims to bring 3D printing to everyone.  The application of the French inventors was abandoned by the French General Electric Company (now Alcatel-Alsthom) and CILAS (The Laser Consortium). and will create new alloys and composites that were not viable before. Before solid modeling was introduced in the late 1980s, three-dimensional models were created with wire frames and surfaces." With RSM, a technician uses silicone to take an impression of the ear canal, that impression is 3D scanned, and after some minor tweaking the model is 3D printed with a resin 3D printer. These websites have allowed greater social interaction between users, creating communities dedicated to 3D printing. We refer to this field of research with the term: bio-printing.  After the US government had Defense Distributed take down the plans, they were still widely available via the Pirate Bay and other file sharing sites. There are many educational courses one can take to engage with 3D printing. The process can be fraught with complications, however, due to the isolated and monolithic algorithms. Another technique fuses parts of the layer and then moves upward in the working area, adding another layer of granules and repeating the process until the piece has built up. Crowns and dentures are already directly 3D printed, along with surgical guides.  The term "3D printing" can refer to a variety of processes in which material is deposited, joined or solidified under computer control to create a three-dimensional object, with material being added together (such as liquid molecules or powder grains being fused together), typically layer by layer. This process is called fused particle fabrication (FPF) (or fused granular fabrication (FGF) and has the potential to use more recycled materials. "Open-source 3-D printing Technologies for education: Bringing Additive Manufacturing to the Classroom. Printed prototypes are also very common in the arts, animation and fashion studies as well. , Laser sintering and laser beam melting systems for additive manufacturing have become more important recently. The 33-centimeter-long structural fittings that hold the aft kitchen galley to the airframe are 3D printed by a company called Norsk Titanium. As 3D printers became more accessible to consumers, online social platforms have developed to support the community. Furthermore, the few established standards address factory conditions, not home or other environments in which the printers are likely to be used. , In the United States, the FAA has anticipated a desire to use additive manufacturing techniques and has been considering how best to regulate this process.  Continuous liquid interface production begins with a pool of liquid photopolymer resin. Stereolithography employs a vat of liquid curable photopolymer resin and an ultraviolet laser to build the object’s layers one at a time. Unused powder can be re-used for the next print. Agile tooling uses a cost-effective and high-quality method to quickly respond to customer and market needs, and it can be used in hydro-forming, stamping, injection molding and other manufacturing processes. Car manufacturers have been utilizing 3D printing for a long time. The general concept of and procedure to be used in 3D-printing was first described by Raymond F. Jones in his story, "Tools of the Trade," published in the November 1950 issue of Astounding Science Fiction magazine. Momeni, Farhang, Xun Liu, and Jun Ni. Multi Jet Fusion technology was developed by Hewlett Packard and works with a sweeping arm which deposits a layer of powder and then another arm equipped with inkjets which selectively applies a binder agent over the material. Adoption of 3D printing has reached critical mass as those who have yet to integrate additive manufacturing somewhere in their supply chain are now part of an ever-shrinking minority. Each slice is converted into a two-dimensional mask image.  The manual modeling process of preparing geometric data for 3D computer graphics is similar to plastic arts such as sculpting. 3D printing or additive manufacturing is a process of making three dimensional solid objects from a digital file. Other terms that have been used as synonyms or hypernyms have included desktop manufacturing, rapid manufacturing (as the logical production-level successor to rapid prototyping), and on-demand manufacturing (which echoes on-demand printing in the 2D sense of printing). Others have suggested that as more and more 3D printers start to enter people's homes, the conventional relationship between the home and the workplace might get further eroded. The challenges of 4D printing include the fact that the microstructures of these printed smart materials must be close to or better than the parts obtained through traditional machining processes.  In commercial production Nike is using 3D printing to prototype and manufacture the 2012 Vapor Laser Talon football shoe for players of American football, and New Balance is 3D manufacturing custom-fit shoes for athletes. When a feature has both artistic (copyrightable) and functional (patentable) merits, when the question has appeared in US court, the courts have often held the feature is not copyrightable unless it can be separated from the functional aspects of the item. While additive manufacturing-specific degrees are fairly new, universities have long been using 3D printers in other disciplines.  As of 2017, domestic 3D printing was reaching a consumer audience beyond hobbyists and enthusiasts. Many steps may differ from this stage however for simple designs, the material goes through a plating process to plate the holes and surface. This means that the process relies on a layer-by-layer bu… , As of March 2018,[update] the US Government has set 3D printer emission standards for only a limited number of compounds. These are: A 3D printer based on the Vat Photopolymerisation method has a container filled with photopolymer resin. , Attempting to restrict the distribution of gun plans via the Internet has been likened to the futility of preventing the widespread distribution of DeCSS, which enabled DVD ripping. Prior to RSM, making one hearing aid required nine laborious steps involving hand sculpting and mold making, and the results were often ill-fitting. Feature sizes of under 100 nm are easily produced, as well as complex structures with moving and interlocked parts. This term accurately describes how this technology works to create objects. The most-commonly used 3D printing process (46% as of 2018[update]) is a material extrusion technique called fused deposition modeling, or FDM. Where 3D printing was only suitable for prototyping and one-off manufacturing in the early stages, it is now rapidly transforming into a production technology. Vat photopolymerisation schematics. See 1970's history above. Any of the mentioned legal regimes may prohibit the distribution of the designs used in 3D printing, or the distribution or sale of the printed item. DLP or Digital Light Processing refers to a method of printing that makes use of light and photosensitive polymers. It’s important to see it as a cluster of diverse industries with a myriad of different applications. It was shown that those 3D-printed beads were capable of promoting high density cell attachment and propionic acid production, which could be adapted to other fermentation bioprocesses. , In 3D printing, computer-simulated microstructures are commonly used to fabricate objects with spatially varying properties. ", "Foodini 3D Printer Cooks Up Meals Like the Star Trek Food Replicator", "3D Printed Food System for Long Duration Space Missions", "Barcelona researcher develops 3D printer that makes 'steaks, "A researcher has developed a plant-based meat substitute that's made with a 3D printer", "With 3-D Printing, the Shoe Really Fits", "3D Custom Eyewear The Next Focal Point For 3D Printing", "Fashion and technology will inevitably become one", "Koenigsegg One:1 Comes With 3D Printed Parts", "Conheça o Urbee, primeiro carro a ser fabricado com uma impressora 3D", "Local Motors shows Strati, the world's first 3D-printed car", "Airbus had 1,000 parts 3D printed to meet deadline", "The 3D printer revolution comes to the IAF", "GE team secretly printed a helicopter engine, replacing 900 parts with 16", "Could a 'Printable Gun' Change the World? Thermoplastic color inks (CMYK) printed with layers of each color to form the first digitally formed layered objects in 1984. Summers recommends more vigorous cooperative efforts to address the "myriad devices" (e.g., tax havens, bank secrecy, money laundering, and regulatory arbitrage) enabling the holders of great wealth to "a paying" income and estate taxes, and to make it more difficult to accumulate great fortunes without requiring "great social contributions" in return, including: more vigorous enforcement of anti-monopoly laws, reductions in "excessive" protection for intellectual property, greater encouragement of profit-sharing schemes that may benefit workers and give them a stake in wealth accumulation, strengthening of collective bargaining arrangements, improvements in corporate governance, strengthening of financial regulation to eliminate subsidies to financial activity, easing of land-use restrictions that may cause the real estate of the rich to keep rising in value, better training for young people and retraining for displaced workers, and increased public and private investment in infrastructure development—e.g., in energy production and transportation. 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